Geographical Facts about West Bengal

Located in eastern India, the geographical region of West Bengal is home to a varied landscape. The neighbouring nation of Bangladesh is to the east, while Sikkim and Bhutan are to the north. West Bengal shares a boundary with Assam in the northeastern direction. Its western boundary is shared with Jharkhand and Bihar. The state’s geographical coordinates are slightly north of 23 degrees latitude and east of 88 degrees longitude. Keep on reading to know about Geography of West Bengal.

Regional Geography Of West Bengal

  • Located in eastern India, West Bengal is home to the country’s fourth-most populated state. Covering around 88,750 km2, it is quite large.
  • Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan form a triangular border with the state.
  • Kolkata is the capital of West Bengal and one of the country’s most populous and important cities.
  • Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Orissa are five Indian states that touch the borders.
  • Paschim Bongo is the local name of the state.
  • The region is divided into five divisions: Jalpaiguri, Burdwan, Presidency, Malda, and Medinipur.
  • North 24 Parganas is the most populous of West Bengal’s 23 districts, whereas South 24 Parganas dominates in land area.
  • The state extended from the northern Himalayas to the southern Bay of Bengal.
  • The Jhargam, Kalimpong, and Alipurduar districts were founded not long ago. Within the range of 21 degrees 25 minutes to 13 minutes north, you’ll find the latitude; to the east, you’ll find 80 degrees 50 minutes.
  • The Indian Administrative Service appoints a district collector or district magistrate to oversee each district.
  • While Siliguri is a major economic hub, Asansol is the state’s second-largest city. Other notable cities in West Bengal include Burdwan, Darjeeling, Midnapore, Malda, Durgapur, Howrah, and many more.

Environmental Geography of West Bengal

  • The western mountains of the Darjeeling Himalayas are around 220 meters tall, making them a more elevated section of the range.
  • Two mountain ranges, the Singalila and the Darjeeling, may be observed from this spot.
  • On average, the eastern mountains are 1900 meters high. In this area, the Chola and Durpin mountain ranges are particularly prominent.
  • With an average elevation of 80 to 100 meters, the Terai region is a wet or marshy part of West Bengal, home to grasslands, savannas, and woods.
  • The soil in both sectors comes from the Deccan Plateau, making up the bulk of the Medinipur and PaschimMedinipur regions. In the southern part of the state lies the coastline region. Rivers and winds have deposited sand and mud, creating the plain.
  • The largest mangrove forest globally (140,000 hectares), called the Sunderban Delta or the Sundarbans, is located in the South 24 Parganas district.
  • It was mark as a World Heritage site in 1987 and became a major tourist attraction.

Environmental Geography of West Bengal

  • The site comprises a tangled network of mudflats, tidal waterways, and small islands of salt-tolerant (highly saline) mangrove forests.
  • This region is rich in various flora and fauna, comprising 260 species of birds, the famous Bengal tiger, and the most threatened species of Indian python and estuaries crocodile.
  • Sundarbans is the universal global hub of crucial endanger species, including the Ganges and Irrawaddy dolphins, Royal Bengal Tiger, BatagurBaska – endemic river terrapin, etc. Pantheratigris has only one remaining habitat, and Darjeeling, the “queen of hills,” is a popular tourist destination. Darjeeling tea’s distinctive aroma, flavour, and musky-spicy aroma earned it the geographical indicator. The Camellia sinensis plant, grown in West Bengal’s Kalimpong districts, is used to make it. The breathtaking panorama of the Bhutan Himalayas, Mt. Kanchendzonga, and the Singhala and Kanchendzonga ranges is second to none.
  • With a length of 53 miles (86 km) and a width of around 2 feet (610 mm), the Himalayan Railway of Darjeeling is sometimes called the Toy Train. One can witness the sunrise over Kanchenjunga and the Himalayan peaks from the majestic tiger hill at 2590 meters.
  • The West Bengali city of Kalimpong is well-known for its indigenous Tibetan and Bhutanese jewellery and handicrafts, including wood carvings, paintings, Feng-Shui bells, and tapestry bells.
  • Historically, it served as a passageway for goods travelling between India and Tibet.

Drainage and Relief

  • In the south, you’ll find the Gangetic Plain, and in the north, you’ll find the sub-Himalayan and Himalayan areas, which together make up the main geographical sections of West Bengal.
  • The Gangetic Plain is characterize by marshes, shallow lakes, and fertile alluvial soil that the Ganges River and its tributaries have deposited.
  • Over several centuries, the Ganges River has been slowly moving eastward, and most of its water currently flows through the Hugli (Hooghly) River in this particular state. In southern West Bengal, on the banks of the Hugli, is the state’s capital city, Kolkata. One can see where the Damodar River meets the Hugli in the southwest of Kolkata.
  • The plain’s elevation rises slowly to the west, especially close to the Chota Nagpur plateau in Jharkhand.
  • The sub-Himalayan area, the West Bengal Duars or Western Duars, is between the Himalayas and the plain. Before it was drain and developed, it was a malaria hotspot; today, it is home to some of the best tea estates in India.
  • The Himalayan mountain suddenly bounds the state’s northern border ranges to the north of the Duars. Mount Kanchenjunga stands tall and proud in Darjeeling and the surrounding areas, even though it is technically in Sikkim. You can even make out Mount Everest in the distance on particularly bright days.

West Bengal’s Climate Geography

  • Because of its southern location, the Indian state of West Bengal experiences the usual tropical wet-dry climate.
  • The state receives 64 inches (1,625 mm) of precipitation every year.
  • Spring (March–June), Summer (June–September), and Winter (October–February) are the three separate seasons experience by every city and district.
  • The wettest months are May through September, with an average temperature of 31 degrees Celsius. The capital city, Kolkata, has an average of 21.6 degrees Celsius and 35 mm of precipitation yearly.
  • This area is prone to heavy cyclones, rain, and monsoons.
  • Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri, for example, enjoy perfect weather conditions due to their elevated mountain locations. Summertime highs exceed 15 degrees Celsius, while winter lows drop to 2 degrees Celsius at the most.

Conclusion

All the major elements of the develop cities, including the capital city, are cover in the article above, which provides a clear image of the Geography of West Bengal. Geographical elements include climate, environmental factors, population, and regional features.

Also Read Understanding the Richness of Natural Resources

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